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Super P-Force

Tatiana M. Prowell, M.D.

  • Associate Professor of Oncology

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/profiles/results/directory/profile/0012228/tanya-prowell

A 27 mg dosage strength is available for physicians who wish to prescribe between the 18 mg and 36 mg dosages generic erectile dysfunction drugs in canada buy 160mg super p-force mastercard. Improvement may be sustained when the drug is either temporarily or permanently discontinued erectile dysfunction heart disease diabetes generic 160 mg super p-force otc. If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one-month period erectile dysfunction on prozac 160 mg super p-force otc, the drug should be discontinued erectile dysfunction bph order cheap super p-force online. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death erectile dysfunction fpnotebook buy discount super p-force on line, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities erectile dysfunction doctors augusta ga cheap super p-force 160mg mastercard, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs. Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mm Hg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm) [see Adverse Reactions (6. While the mean changes alone would not be 6 expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated with Stimulant Medications Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease. Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms Treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention. Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause similar suppression of growth; however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted. There have been rare reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures in association with the ingestion of drugs in nondeformable controlled-release formulations. The most common adverse reactions in double-blind clinical trials (>5%) in adult patients were decreased appetite, headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, weight decreased, irritability, and hyperhidrosis [see Adverse Reactions (6. The most common adverse reactions associated with discontinuation (і1%) from either pediatric or adult clinical trials were anxiety, irritability, insomnia, and blood pressure increased [see Adverse Reactions (6. The stated frequencies of adverse events represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Further, because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Leukopenia Eye Disorders: Accommodation disorder, Dry eye Vascular Disorders: Hot flush Gastrointestinal Disorders: Abdominal discomfort, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: Asthenia, Fatigue, Feeling jittery, Thirst Infections and Infestations: Sinusitis Investigations: Alanine aminotransferase increased, Blood pressure increased, Cardiac murmur, Heart rate increased Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: Muscle spasms Nervous System Disorders: Lethargy, Psychomotor hyperactivity, Somnolence Psychiatric Disorders: Anger, Hypervigilance, Mood altered, Mood swings, Panic attack, Sleep disorder, Tearfulness, Tic Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Erectile dysfunction Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Dyspnea Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Rash, Rash macular Vascular Disorders: Hypertension 6. In placebo patients, blood pressure increased and depressed mood had an incidence of >0. In a second uncontrolled study (n=682 children) the cumulative incidence of new-onset tics was 1% (9/682 children). In one placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 6), dose-dependent mean increases of 3. Mean changes from baseline in standing blood pressure at the end of double-blind treatment ranged from 0. Downward dose adjustment of these drugs may be required when given concomitantly with methylphenidate. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage and monitor plasma drug concentrations (or, in the case of coumarin, coagulation times), when initiating or discontinuing concomitant methylphenidate. The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established. In lactating female rats treated with a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg radiolabeled methylphenidate, radioactivity (representing methylphenidate and/or its metabolites) was observed in milk and levels were generally similar to those in plasma. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. For the purpose of this assessment, the response for each of the subjective measures was defined as the maximum effect within the first 8 hours after dose administration. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up. The patient must be protected against self-injury and against external stimuli that would aggravate overstimulation already present. Before performing gastric lavage, control agitation and seizures if present and protect the airway. Other measures to detoxify the gut include administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Intensive care must be provided to maintain adequate circulation and respiratory exchange; external cooling procedures may be required for pyrexia. The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. The system, which resembles a conventional tablet in appearance, comprises an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a semipermeable membrane with an immediate-release drug overcoat. The trilayer core is composed of two drug layers containing the drug and excipients, and a push layer containing osmotically active components. In an aqueous environment, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the drug overcoat dissolves 19 within one hour, providing an initial dose of methylphenidate. As the osmotically active polymer excipients expand, methylphenidate is released through the orifice. The membrane controls the rate at which water enters the tablet core, which in turn controls drug delivery. The biologically inert components of the tablet remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and are eliminated in the stool as a tablet shell along with insoluble core components. Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space. Distribution Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in adults and adolescents decline biexponentially following oral administration. After oral dosing of radiolabeled methylphenidate in humans, about 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in urine. At an alcohol concentration up to 40% there was no increased release of methylphenidate in the first hour. The results with the 18 mg tablet strength are considered representative of the other available tablet strengths. Some of these differences could be explained by bodyweight differences among these populations. This suggests that subjects with higher body weight may have lower exposures of total methylphenidate at similar doses. The mouse strain used is sensitive to the development of hepatic tumors, and the significance of these results to humans is unknown. In a 24-week carcinogenicity study in the transgenic mouse strain p53+/-, which is sensitive to genotoxic carcinogens, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Male and female mice were fed diets containing the same concentration of methylphenidate as in the lifetime carcinogenicity study; the high-dose groups were exposed to 60 to 74 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. Mutagenesis Methylphenidate was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay or the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Methylphenidate was negative in vivo in males and females in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Impairment of Fertility Methylphenidate did not impair fertility in male or female mice that were fed diets containing the drug in an 18-week Continuous Breeding study. Study 3 involved 4 weeks of parallel-group treatments with a Last Observation Carried Forward analysis at week 4. Treatment was initiated at 36 mg/day and patients continued with incremental increases of 18 mg/day (36 to 108 mg/day) based on meeting specific improvement criteria with acceptable tolerability. Study 6 was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response study (5-week duration) with 3 fixed-dose groups (18, 36, and 72 mg). Instruct the patient to seek immediate medical attention in the event of priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5. Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes. General Considerations Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with methylphenidate and should counsel them in its appropriate use. The medication is contained within a nonabsorbable shell designed to release the drug at a controlled rate. The tablet shell, along with insoluble core components, is eliminated from the body; patients should not be concerned if they occasionally notice in their stool something that looks like a tablet. Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery Stimulants may impair the ability of the patient to operate potentially hazardous machinery or vehicles. Heart-related problems: · sudden death in patients who have heart problems or heart defects · stroke and heart attack in adults · increased blood pressure and heart rate Tell your doctor if you or your child has any heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems. Painful and prolonged erections (priapism) Painful and prolonged erections (priapism) have occurred with methylphenidate. This disorder has had numerous different labels over the past century, including hyperactive child syndrome, hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, minimal brain dysfunction, and attention deficit disorder (with or without hyperactivity). Impaired response inhibition, impulse control, or the capacity to delay gratification. Excessive task-irrelevant activity or activity that is poorly regulated to the demands of a situation. Younger children with the disorder may show excessive running, climbing, and other gross motor activity. In adults with the disorder, this restlessness may be more subjective than outwardly observable, although with some adults they remain outwardly restless as well and report a new to always be busy or doing something and being unable to sit still. This problem often arises when the individual is assigned boring, tedious, protracted, or repetitive activities that lack intrinsic appeal to the person. They often fail to show the same level of persistence, "stick-to-it-tiveness," motivation, and will-power of others their age when uninteresting yet important tasks must be performed. They often report becoming easily bored with such tasks and consequently shift from one uncompleted activity to another without completing these activities. Loss of concentration during tedious, boring, or protracted tasks is commonplace, as is an inability to return to their task on which they were working should they be unexpectedly interrupted. Thus, they are easily distracted during periods when concentration is important to the task at hand. They may also have problems with completing routine assignments without direct supervision, being unable to stay on task during independent work. They may often be described as acting without hindsight or forethought, and being less able to anticipate and prepare for future events as well as others, all of which seem to be dependent on working memory. Problems with time management and organizing themselves for upcoming events are commonplace in older children and adults with the disorder. This private speech is absolutely essential to the normal development of contemplation, reflection, and self-regulation. When combined with their difficulties with working memory, this problem with self-talk or private speech often results in significant interference with reading comprehension, especially of complex, uninteresting, or extended reading assignments. They seem less able to "internalize" their feelings, to keep them to themselves, and even to moderate them when they do so as others might do. Consequently, they are likely to appear to others as less emotionally mature, more reactive with their feelings, and more hot-headed, quick-tempered, and easily frustrated by events. Coupled with this problem with emotion regulation is the difficulty they have in generating intrinsic motivation for tasks that have no immediate payoff or appeal to them. This capacity to create private motivation, drive, or determination often makes them appear to lack will-power or self-discipline as they cannot stay with things that do not provide immediate reward, stimulation, or interest to them. Their motivation remains dependent on the immediate environment for how hard and how long they will work, whereas others develop a capacity for intrinsically motivating themselves in the absence of immediate rewards or other consequences. Also related to these difficulties with regulating emotion and motivation is that of regulating their general level of arousal to meet situational demands. Diminished problem-solving ability, ingenuity, and flexibility in pursuing long-term goals. At these times, individuals must be capable of quickly generating a variety of options to themselves, considering their respective outcomes, and selecting among them those which seem most likely to surmount the obstacle so they can continue toward their goal. Thus they may appear as less flexible in approaching problem situations, more likely to respond automatically or on impulse, and so are less creative at overcoming the road-blocks to their goals than others are likely to be. These problems may even be evident in the speech and writing of those with the disorder, as they are less able to quickly assemble their ideas into a more organized, coherent explanation of their thoughts. And so they are less able to rapidly assemble their actions or ideas into a chain of responses that effectively accomplishes the goal given them, be it verbal or behavioral in nature. These wide swings may be found in the quality, quantity, and even speed of their work, failing to maintain a relatively even pattern of productivity and accuracy in their work from moment to moment and day to day. Indeed, some researchers see this pattern of high variability in work-related activities to be as much a hallmark of the disorder as is the poor inhibition and inattention described above. But certainly the vast majority of those with the disorder have had some symptoms since before the age of 13 years. Although the absolute level of symptoms does decline with age, this is true of the inattentiveness, impulsiveness, and activity levels of normal individuals as well. This seems to leave them chronically behind others of their age in their capacity to inhibit behavior, sustain attention, control distractibility, and regulate their activity level.

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For Possible Action: Review and Approve Meeting Minutes from June 28 erectile dysfunction causes cycling buy 160mg super p-force otc, 2018 Motion to approve the meeting minutes as presented erectile dysfunction oral treatment effective 160mg super p-force. The addition of Eucrisa was added to existing prior authorization criteria for topical immunomodulators erectile dysfunction melanoma safe 160mg super p-force. And existing Botox criteria was relocated to the pharmacy chapter from another chapter within Medicaid erectile dysfunction surgery cost super p-force 160 mg mastercard. Carl Jeffery: I wanted to just pause for a second and introduce our new Board Member erectile dysfunction reviews purchase generic super p-force on line. So impotence spell purchase super p-force 160 mg online, I think Kevin and I came up with this plan to just break them out in long-acting maintenance therapy medications all into a single class here and then the next one will have just the short-acting rescue inhalers on the next one. When we get into the other agents, we put them on different slides to fit them all in there. At this time, Optum recommends the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. Annual Review - Established Drug Classes Being Reviewed Due to the Release of New Drugs a. When you look at the utilization, loratadine and the cetirizine are almost tied for the first place and they are both preferred. Carl Jeffery: With the addition of the new generic, Optum recommends that it be considered nonpreferred with the other medications and keep the rest of the list remain the same, but the cetirizine and loratadine be preferred. Most of the classes require a trial of two preferred agents before getting a non-preferred agent, but if there is just a single agent, they would have to try just that one before getting a non-preferred. It is available as a prefilled syringe for selfadministration and as a lyophilized powder for reconstitution. Rheumatoid arthritis is a life-long systemic autoimmune disease that effects women three times more frequently than men and often in their reproductive years. Unfortunately, due to the lack of data, placental transfer data in this patient subpopulation, women sometimes feel the need to choose between treatment and starting a family. Stone mentioned, is necessary for active transport of nutrients from mother to baby. This approval provided Cimzia as an option to women between the ages of 18 to 45 who suffer from one of its indicated autoimmune diseases and have plans for family. Carl Jeffery: Couple new products on the list here that prompted us to bring this back. When you look at the utilization criteria, still Humira is our number one treatment. I think number 2 here is Enbrel so if you remember back in the day, Enbrel and Humira were the 2 preferred agents we had on our formulary for a long time. The next step is for the Board to consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. D: I would agree, we treat them like a homogenous group, but they are different, but grouping them like this makes sense. Our proposal is to move Inflectra which is a bio-similar to move it to non-preferred and then the Kevzara to move to preferred and then the two new agents, Olumiant would be preferred and then Ilumya would be non-preferred. Carl Jeffery: the other non-preferred agent is a liquid but otherwise everything else is tablet form. Optum recommends the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. Carl Jeffery: Optum recommends the Board as a new medication, the Zypitamag, as non-preferred and keep the rest of the class the same. It has a longer duration of action as the Aranesp but it could be up to I think every 2 weeks. Carl Jeffery: Right, they are paid a per diem rate, they get paid the same whether they give this or not. Optum recommends they add it as nonpreferred and keep the Aranesp and Procrit as preferred. You can see pretty much everything on here has a generic except for the Namzeric now so we are just positioning things to provide adequate coverage while seeing what we can do for the state here. Optum recommendations the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. So I want to make that distinction that we just want the regular-release tablets is preferred and then the two new rivastigmine generics, the capsules and transdermals added as non-preferred. If you look at non-oral routes of administration, you really only have Zomig, zolmitriptan, and sumatriptan. Unfortunately, when you look at triptans, we typically think of them as all being therapeutically equivalent. Last meeting we talked about a drug for nasal polyps, a corticosteroid for nasal polyps. Still the sumatriptan tabs are most widely used and I think that goes with what this kind of standard practice is. Optum makes the recommendation this class be considered clinically and therapeutically equivalent. A neurologist sees a new patient and without their history, is it difficult to be accepted or do we accept the word of the physician? Carl Jeffery: There was supposed to be a new product in this class, but the manufacture does not participate in the Federal Drug Rebate program. Carl Jeffery: Optum recommends keep the class the same except for the addition of Otiprio is nonpreferred and mostly just to avoid the risk of errors from the pharmacy side. The utilization numbers actually was higher than what I was anticipated to be but Optum recommends the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. Carl Jeffery: New generic Tamiflu suspension has been added; nothing real special about it. Carl Jeffery: Optum recommends the new suspension generic be added as non-preferred. D: Is there any kind of override allowed if the brand Tamiflu becomes unavailable? I think that certainly the state has that ability to make that decision if it comes to it. The numbers here, still Levaquin or levofloxacin still our number one preferred agent. The third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are included in this so look for more information coming up on that. Holly Long: There is a letter going out to providers either email or fax or newsletters. We see patients who have cold symptoms for a long time and come to us asking for antibiotics. Holly Long: Yes, there will be some criteria that requires a culture and sensitivity before being approved. Carl Jeffery: Another new generic to talk about, the generic for Adcirca, the tadalafil. Optum recommends adding Adcirca, the brand, to preferred and the generic, the tadalafil, as non-preferred and keep the rest of the class the same. These are used for the chronic kidney patients but these are often covered separately. These are actually covered outside and unless they get the dose at the dialysis center. Carl Jeffery: Optum recommends that the dutasteride be considered as preferred and the brand Avodart be added as non-preferred, and the rest of the class remain the same. Carl Jeffery: I would probably not grandfather these unless the Board tells me specifically. Carl Jeffery: For Optum, we recommend just swapping out the generic Arixtra for fondaparinux. The generic Arixtra is preferred and then the non-preferred would be the brand, Arixtra. No head-tohead studies have been shown still showing one is beneficial over the other ones. It seems like the other agents are really doing a good job of continuing their studies to show that these are safe and effective and expanding their indications, etc. Hormones and Hormone Modifiers - Antidiabetic Agents - Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors/Amylin analogs/Misc. It has some of the data for weight loss, as well, but then we see that Trulicity is number 2 and then the Tanzeum again is tapering off. Optum recommends that the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. D: It is tough; Trulicity moving to non-preferred is tough with its data and utilization. Carl Jeffery: this is one where we certainly grandfathered those members in that are currently on it and just going forward; it would just be a step before they got non-preferred. You would be moving a once-weekly medication non-preferred and not having that option any more? For diabetics, the better compliance, the less long-term effects they are going to have. I think the once weekly is beneficial and there is some data with once weekly Bydrueon vs. I think initially had some ideas that would provide some benefit, but we have the alendronate sodium as available and certainly the more widely used. Optum recommends this class be considered clinically and therapeutically equivalent. Carl Jeffery: these products are kind of dwindling, Fortical and I think Miacalcin is going away, too, eventually. Right now, the only thing that would be available is the generic calcitonin salmon so Optum recommends the Board consider these clinically and therapeutically equivalent. They can easily switch over to the ketotifen which is number two on there but the Pazeo is going to remain as preferred in our proposal, but Optum recommends these be considered clinically and therapeutically equivalent. Carl Jeffery: Optum recommends just removing Alaway brand from the preferred list to make it nonpreferred and like I said, the ketotifen and the Zaditor are both available as preferred which is the same ingredient. Carl Jeffery: Restasis has a new multidose bottle and it has all the doses instead of getting them all individually packages single-use vials for the Restasis. Annual Review ­ Drug Classes Without Proposed Changes Carl Jeffery: There were some letters that were delivered to me that are letters of support for the anticonvulsants and having open access to these. For Possible Action: Committee Discussion and Approval of the Drug Classes without Changes Motion to approve remaining drug classes without changes. Report by OptumRx on New Drugs to Market, New Generic Drugs to Market, and New Line Extensions Carl Jeffery: A couple new exciting agents that are coming out. We may see this one in the future and the other ones are not so much that we used. Generalized seizures affect both sides of the brain and include: Tonic-clonic (grand mal): begin with stiffening of the limbs, followed by jerking of the limbs and face Myoclonic: characterized by rapid, brief contractions of body muscles, usually on both sides of the body at the same time Atonic: characterized by abrupt loss of muscle tone; they are also called drop attacks or akinetic seizures and can result in injury due to falls Absence (petit mal): characterized by brief lapses of awareness, sometimes with staring, that begin and end abruptly; they are more common in children than adults and may be accompanied by brief myoclonic jerking of the eyelids or facial muscles, a loss of muscle tone, or automatisms. Focal seizures are located in just 1 area of the brain and include: Simple: affect a small part of the brain; can affect movement, sensations, and emotion, without a loss of consciousness Complex: affect a larger area of the brain than simple focal seizures and the patient loses awareness; episodes typically begin with a blank stare, followed by chewing movements, picking at or fumbling with clothing, mumbling, and performing repeated unorganized movements or wandering; they may also be called "temporal lobe epilepsy" or "psychomotor epilepsy" Secondarily generalized seizures: begin in 1 part of the brain and spread to both sides Status epilepticus is characterized by prolonged, uninterrupted seizure activity. Additional classification details may also be used (Fisher et al 2017A, Fisher et al 2017B). For example, a "focal aware" seizure corresponds to the prior term "simple partial seizure," and a "focal impaired awareness" seizure corresponds to the prior term "complex partial seizure. It is usually appropriate to refer patients to a neurologist to establish the epilepsy diagnosis and formulate the management strategy (Schachter 2018). For example, absence seizures are commonly confused with complex partial seizures. However, drugs that reduce absence seizures are generally ineffective for complex partial seizures, and the most effective drugs for complex partial seizures may be ineffective against or even increase the frequency of absence seizures (Epilepsy Foundation 2016). There is little comparative clinical data to support the use of specific combinations (Schachter et al 2018). Of these agents, mephobarbital and ezogabine are not currently marketed as either brand or generic formulations, but are included in this review for informational and historical purposes. For items marked with an asterisk, there is additional information about the indication provided in the box following the tables. Acute-care indications that are not related to convulsive disorders (for example, pre-procedural use of benzodiazepines in hospital settings) are not included. Zonisamide Rufinamide Topiramate Pregabalin Stiripentol Primidone Vigabatrin Phenytoin Tiagabine Monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of simple and complex absence seizures (age 10 years for extended-release tablets; age not specified for tablets/sprinkle capsules) the tablets and extended-release tablets have indications in bipolar disorder and migraine prophylaxis; the sprinkle capsule formulation does not. For bipolar disorder, safety and effectiveness for long-term use (> 3 weeks) has not been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. Monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with complex partial seizures (in adults and pediatric patients down 10 years) that occur either in isolation or in association with other types of seizures; sole and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of simple and complex absence seizures, and adjunctively in patients with multiple seizure types which include absence seizures Migraine prophylaxis and bipolar disorder indications are for the delayed-release capsule formulation only (Stavzor, which is not currently marketed). For bipolar disorder: Acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder, with or without psychotic features; safety and effectiveness for long-term use (> 3 weeks) has not been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials Vigabatrin: Refractory complex partial seizures as adjunctive therapy in patients 10 years of age who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments; not indicated as a first-line agent Infantile spasms as monotherapy in infants 1 month to 2 years of age for whom the potential benefits outweigh the potential risk of vision loss Zonisamide: Adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy Information on indications, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing, and safety has been obtained from the prescribing information for the individual products, except where noted otherwise. Comparative efficacy data for the management of epilepsy are limited, and trials have generally not shown significant differences among drugs in terms of efficacy. However, the quality of the data is limited and generally derived from short-term trials (Karceski 2017). Most patients with epilepsy are treated with anticonvulsant monotherapy (Nevitt et al 2017). This publication provides conclusions based on a review of 64 randomized trials and 11 meta-analyses. Conclusions include the following: As initial monotherapy for adults with newly diagnosed or untreated partial-onset seizures: Carbamazepine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, and zonisamide are established as efficacious/effective. Gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, and vigabatrin are possibly efficacious/effective.

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Based on published reports erectile dysfunction desi treatment purchase super p-force in united states online, characteristics of pulmonary nodules can been detected by texture features candida causes erectile dysfunction cheap super p-force 160mg visa. However erectile dysfunction newsletter order 160 mg super p-force with amex, 2D images are irregular when decomposed erectile dysfunction vascular causes super p-force 160mg with visa, and the Curvelet transform is more suitable than the wavelet transform to extract texture features erectile dysfunction natural treatment cheap 160 mg super p-force with visa. The methods to establish prediction model are variable rogaine causes erectile dysfunction purchase super p-force online now, such as multiple linear regression, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, artificial neural networks, but the result of support vector machine is better (Zheng Z et al. Sensitivity(%) Using Energy As the Only Parameter Using Texture Features of Inner Layer As Parameters Using Texture Features of Middle Layer As Parameters Using Texture Features of Outer Layer As Parameters Using Mean, StaDev, Energy and Entropy As Parameters Using Principal Component Analysis Using 158 Texture Features As Parameters the Largest 100 Texture Features As Parameters 93. Summary In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer has been the top of cancers in the most countries. Because of the difficulty to diagnosis, more attention has been paid to lung cancer. From two examples, we can make the conclusion that the prediction model is so sensitive that it can diagnose early-stage lung cancer effectively, reduces the difficulty of distinguishing characteristics of pulmonary nodules and improves accuracy rate of diagnosing early-stage lung cancer. Classification, staging and prognosis of lung cancer, European Journal of Radiology Vol. A comparison of wavelet, ridgelet, and curvelet-based texture classification algorithms in computed tomography, Computers in Biology and Medicine Vol. Exploring the Risk Factors of Lung Pulmonary Nodules with Cancer Using Sandwich Logistic Regression Analysis, Journal of Mathematical Medicine Vol. Design of a two-stage content-based image retrieval system using texture similarity, Information Processing & Management Vol. A genetic algorithm design for micro calcification detection and classification in digital mammograms, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics Vol. Modeling crash outcome probabilities at rural intersections: Application of hierarchical binomial logistic models. Application of artificial neural networks in prediction model of early-stage lung cancer, Chinese journal of Medical Statistics Vol. A comparison of wavelet, ridgelet, and curvelet-based texture classification algorithms in computed tomography, Computers in Biology and Medicine. Mammographic masses characterization based on localized texture and dataset fractal analysis using linear, neural and support vector machine classifiers, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. A comparison of wavelet and curvelet for breast cancer diagnosis in digital mammogram, Computers in Biology and Medicine. Effect of probability-distance based Markovian texture extraction on discrimination in biological imaging, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Vol. Generalized linear mixed models: a pseudolikelihood approach, Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation Vol. Entropy-Based Texture Analysis of Chromatin Structure in Advanced Prostate Cancer, Cytometry Vol. Support vector machines in sonography Application to decision making in the diagnosis of breast cancer, Journal of Clinical Imaging. Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Investigation of eye gaze based on independent component analysis and support vector machine[J], Journal of Optoelectronics. Introduction the advances in the understanding of the liver anatomy and physiology (Couinaud, 1999; Ryu & Cho, 2009), the improvement of medical imaging techniques (Radtke et al. Therefore, healthy functional liver volume estimation and functional performance analysis are tests further needed to make the final clinical decision before extensive hepatectomies. However, even when using a subsampled version, the complete procedure takes longer than 30 minutes. The algorithm has been developed to solve a specific request demanded by radiologists from the research team. The requirement in our work is that the segmentation should include only healthy parenchyma excluding tumors in order not to overestimate healthy liver volumes. First attempts to perform automatic liver segmentation were based on gray-level statistics (Woodhouse et al. Liver gray levels can be estimated either by statistical analysis of manually segmented slices, either by histogram analysis with the aim of establishing an a priori knowledge about liver density. In most of the works based on gray-level statistics, a threshold is used to generate a binary volume that is later processed by morphological operators in order to separate desired organs. A common difficulty of this kind of methods is that they usually need a big and highly varied training set to learn the variability among different patients. The drawback of these methods is the model construction, which requires a huge quantity of training data properly collected in order to capture all the possible shapes; a really challenging task regarding the high amount of variable and complex liver shapes and sizes. Besides, these algorithms use to fail when processing not standard liver shapes and require too much computation time to achieve a good matching between model and image. The probabilistic atlas is generated by spatially averaging the registered surfaces. Then, it is used to compute the probability of belonging to a certain organ for each voxel in the image. Finally, the region that maximizes the posterior probability of being the desired organ is extracted by thresholding or using an iterative algorithm. Some variants of region growing have been also applied to liver segmentation (Pohle & Toennies, 2001; Ruskу et al. However, for those cases, sophisticated restriction methods have to be taken into account in order to avoid over-flooding. Live wire algorithms (Barrett & Mortensen, 1997) are the basis of several semiautomatic liver volume extraction tools currently used in clinical practice. An image is described as an undirected and weighted graph where pixels are represented by the vertexes, the edges connect neighboring pixels, and their weighs represent the cost of the connections computed from image features like gray value, gradient magnitude, gradient direction or Laplacian zero-crossing among others. After that, a desired boundary can be interactively chosen by selecting a free point with the mouse. Indeed, when the mouse pointer moves over the image, the previous boundary segment is deleted and the new minimal path between the seed point and the new position is displayed. When that minimal path is close to the desired boundary, the user can freeze it by adding a new seed point. Different approaches widely used in liver segmentation are Level Sets and snakes (Caselles et al. Moreover, the propagation may be constrained by an a priori anatomic information or shape restrictions. The main problem of Level Sets is the definition of an appropriate speed function and its parameters. Teams that participated in the liver segmentation contest downloaded training and test data and submitted the results of their algorithms on test data both before and during the workshop. To evaluate the quality of a given segmentation, segmentations were compared to expert-generated references and rated according to detected deviations: Volumetric Overlap Error, Relative Volume Difference, Average Symmetric Surface Distance, Root Mean Square Symmetric Surface Distance and Maximum Symmetric Surface Distance. Some of the most successful proposals that got better punctuation were automatic methods based on statistical shape models with some additional free deformation (Heimann et al. However, in that workshop, the segmentation was defined as the entire liver tissue including all internal structures like big vessels systems, tumors, etc. Therefore, that segmentation definition does not exactly match the actual goal of our work (that is estimating healthy liver volumes). Recently, most of new liver segmentation methods combine different techniques: statistical shape models, mathematical morphology and Level Set approaches. The organ locations are modeled in the physical space and normalized to the position of the xiphoid. The construction of the atlases enables the automated quantifications of liver and spleen volumes and heights, later improved by a geodesic active contour. In (Jiang & Cheng, 2009) a threshold segmentation is combined with morphological image processing and active contour models in order to extract the initial contour and segment the liver slice by slice. The tool has been developed following the requirements demanded by radiologists inside the team: segmentation of healthy parenchyma excluding tumors in order not to overestimate healthy liver volumes. In this sense the proposed function allows to directly segment healthy parenchyma. The tool combines a 3D active contour algorithm previously introduced in (Fernandez-deManuel et al. For this reason, a solution based on active contours with no "a prioris" has been approached. The proposed technique only requires the user to initialize a seed and different frontier points in the most common problematic regions before the automatic computation stage. In case that the first segmentation was not satisfactory, the user could redefine or add some other frontiers and repeat the automatic stage. Nevertheless, in clinical environment it is useful to give the opportunity to the radiologist of certain interaction that allows refining the segmentation having into account previous result. Traditionally, evolving constraints are based on the gradient of the image (Kass et al. On the right: active contour growing based on a classical gradient dependent definition (above) and the improvement introduced by the proposed method that avoids the contour to overflow among the intercostal space (below). In order to segment objects with boundaries not necessarily defined by a gradient, (Chan & Vese, 2001) proposed an active contour method consisting on the minimization of a force that depends on the image gray values inside and outside the curve at each iterative step. This force can be formulated by Level Sets techniques as described in (Chan & Vese, 2001). Level Sets based active contour implementations have become very popular, due to their ability of handling discontinuities and the possibility of topological changes. For the Level Sets formulation, C is represented by a Lipschitz function: C = {(x, y): (x, y) = 0} inside(C) = = {(x, y): (x, y) < 0} outside(C) = / = {(x, y): (x, y) > 0} the function (1) can be expressed using and the Heaviside H and Dirac 0 functions. The associated Euler­Lagrange equation for is deduced by minimizing the function with respect to . Finally, a linear system is obtained that can be solved by an iterative method (for more details we refer the reader to (Chan & Vese, 2001)): (2) in + 1 - in j,j, t n = h (in j) div -, n (3) +1 (u0,i, j - c1 (n))2 - 2 (u0,i, j - c 2 (n))2 where 0, 0, 1, 2>0 are fixed parameters and t and h are the time and space steps respectively, used to discretize the equation in with a finite difference implicit scheme. With parameters 1=2= 1 the equation produces a lineal force that is annulled in the mean value of intensity averages c1 and c2. With this definition the contour stops only when there is a notable difference between clear zones toward darker zones and not with sudden zones of very extreme intensities; so this method works properly only with those images that contain two homogenously well defined regions and textures. If there is a small area with an extreme intensity closer to c1 than to c2, it will be erroneously included into the segmentation, even when differing to c1 more than the absolute difference between c1 and c2. An example of this problem, hardly controlled by modifying 1 and 2 weights, can be appreciated in. In order to solve this problem, some variations inside the function defined in (Chan & Vese, 2001) are proposed in (Fernandez-de-Manuel et al. The proposed active contour method restricts the growth of the contour to a zone limited around the average gray value inside the liver. It combines both the modified energy function based on gray values, and a morphological gradient information in order to make the algorithm more robust. The Level Sets function derives from equation (1) and considerably improves the segmentation results on the hepatic images under study. On the right: 3D Active contour growing based on the redefinition of the force equation proposed in (Fernandez-de-Manuel et al. The growing of the contour into the ribs is successfully controlled in the right image. The algorithm starts with a small surface obtained from a seed point placed inside the healthy liver. This fast initial segmentation allows us to select the liver region and to get a first approximate surface. At each step the growing surface begins with the previous step result and iterates to the actual surface of the liver. Finally, in the last step, the resolution of the image is the original one and it performs a final growing of the previous surface that segments properly the liver. Firstly, in order to guarantee that the surface evolution properties are properly fitted to the data, an interpolation is applied to make images isotropic. Kernel size is 3 in lowest resolution levels and no median filter is used in the higher resolution level. In order to define 3D frontiers with conflictive regions, 6 points (3 segments) are selected. Each one of the segments is manually defined in each dimension (transverse, coronal and sagittal) using a multiplanar 3D viewer. These segments are integrated to reconstruct a parallelogram in the 3D space that approximates the restricted plane that separates the liver from the conflictive region. Then, a modification of the image gray values with an exponential function that grows from zero to the original gray image value around the 3D frontier is incorporated in order to restrict the surface growing around the selected area. However, a post-processing step is always essential in any kind of tool in order to smooth the results and fill-in small gaps. In the presented work, resulting segmentations are automatically refined with additional post-processing in order to recover original spatial representation, to smooth the surface and to eliminate unconnected zones. To complete this last step, a morphological erosion is applied to the resulting segmentation mask followed by a binary morphological reconstruction of the mask from the original seed point and a final morphological dilation. The set includes cases of different liver size, shape, intensity and pathologic state. The images were segmented manually by radiologists, working slice-by-slice in transverse view. The liver region was defined as the entire healthy parenchyma, excluding tumors and lesions in order to avoid overestimating the liver functional volume. The semiautomatic segmentation has been carried out following steps described in Section 3. The obtained segmentations have been evaluated by five metrics based on the ones described on (Heimann et al.

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In a study of 201 patients we found that females had an average dose per vocal fold of 1 coffee causes erectile dysfunction buy generic super p-force 160 mg on line. Some patients need bilateral injection but cannot tolerate the initial weak voice erectile dysfunction drugs class purchase super p-force 160 mg without a prescription, and we stagger the injection sides 2 or more weeks apart erectile dysfunction drugs generic names 160mg super p-force with amex. We also have a small number of patients who receive more frequent mini-dose injections as low as 0 impotence penile rings super p-force 160mg on line. With these patient- and visit-specific considerations in a prospective study of 100 patients impotence quotes the sun also rises buy super p-force pills in toronto, we found two response curves lipo 6 impotence generic super p-force 160 mg with visa. One had a few days of breathy voice, followed by an increased percentage function, which maintains for 3 to 4 months. The second group had no voice loss but a consistent improvement over several days, until the peak at > 90% was reached and maintained for 3 to 4 months60 We may add a small dose a few weeks after the initial one if the voice does not become fluent. In the great majority of patients, dysphonia is well controlled for 3 months or more with injections of 0. The average benefit as judged by patients with a validated percent function scale was 91. A vocal fold that is completely unable to abduct requires that the other side be treated with a small dose to avoid the inability to abduct on inspiration, whereas a more mobile one permits a larger dose to be used. Fluctuations in disease severity in spasmodic dysphonia occasionally may require small adjustments in dose. The former approach is more difficult in older patients (particularly males) due to increased calcification in the cricoid. Nearly 20% of the abductors only require unilateral injection for control of symptoms. Due to the potential airway issues, limiting the ability to administer simultaneous bilateral injections, greater than 30% of the abductors are also on low dose oral agents for dystonia. Two percent of our patients had mild wheezing and 6% had transient difficulty swallowing solids. They were switched to rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) for a year and then were challenged again with onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox); all but one responded. One failed but was challenged with incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, Merz, Raleigh, North Carolina, U. Genetic Studies During the last 20 years, several genes for various forms of dystonia have been discovered. We found lenticular nuclear and caudate nuclear hyperechogeneity in 12 of the patients and only one control. Based on a few autopsy specimens, the hyperechogeneity might be related to small amounts of mineral deposition. Over the past several years, we have studied the variations in laryngeal dystonic phenomenology, their genetic profiles, and functional brain patterns to try to better understand the abnormalities producing the poor vocal function. Diagram showing central nervous system and network changes associated with laryngeal dystonia. The dystonic patients showed altered network architecture with abnormal expansion or shrinkage of neural communities, such as breakdown of basal ganglia-cerebellar community, loss of pivotal region of the information transfer hub in the premotor cortex, and pronounced connectivity reduction within the sensorimotor and frontoparietal regions. This suggests that isolated focal dystonias represent a disorder of large-scale functional networks. Based on the clinical phenotype, the adductor formspecific correlations were observed in the frontal cortex, whereas the abductor form-specific correlations were in the cerebellum and putamen. These studies suggest the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying the different manifestations of this disorder. These are heterogenous disorders with the same pathophysiological spectrum, each carrying a characteristic neural signature that may help establish differential markers90 (see. From our study group, during the past several years we recruited 98 patients, who were grouped based on clinical phenotype (adductor or abductor) and underlying putative genotype (sporadic and familial). Their data on brain activity were submitted to independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis to investigate brain organization differences and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. This group was segregated because tremor patients alone can be alcohol-responsive. In the combined group, the drug had a significant effect on the vocal symptoms observed 30 to 45 minutes after taking 1. In contrast to botulinum toxin, sodium oxybate had similar effects in the adductor and abductor groups. Nebst Anleitung zur Diagnose und Therapie der Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes und der Luftrohre. Comparison with essential (voice) tremor and other neurologic and psychogenic dysphonias. Vocal tract electromyographic abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia preliminary report. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia and its modification by botulinum toxin. Abnormal striatal dopinergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia. The Mayo Clinic Arizona Spasmodic Dysphonia Experience: a demographic analysis of 718 patients. Botulinum toxin management of spasmodic dysphonia (laryngeal dystonia): a 12-year experience in more than 900 patients. Spasmodic dysphonia and botulinum toxin: experience from the largest treatment series. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of laryngeal dystonia: a study of 110 cases. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: standard evaluation of symptoms and severity J Voice 1997;11:95­103. Patient perceptions of factors leading to spasmodic dysphonia: a combined clinical experience of 350 patients. Thyroayrtenoid muscle responses to air pressure stimulation of the laryngeal mucosa in human. The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of focal laryngeal dystonia (spastic dysphonia). Treatment of spasmodic dysphonia (laryngeal dystonia) with injections of botulinum toxin: review and technical aspects. Channels formed by botulinum, tetanus, and diphtheria toxins in planar lipid bilayers: relevance to translocation of proteins across membranes. Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins are zinc proteases specific for components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Extrafusal and intrafusal muscle effects in experimental botulinum toxin-A injection. Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. Effects of botulinum toxin type A on intracortical inhibition in patients with dystonia. Assessment: the clinical usefulness of botulinum toxin-A in treating neurological disorders. Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee Committee of the American Academy of Neurology. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Policy Statement: Botox for spasmodic dysphoria. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement, November 12­14, 1990. Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Gender differences in onabotulinum toxin A dosing for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Management of supraglottic squeeze in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a new technique. Findings of multiple muscle involvement in a study of 214 patients with laryngeal dystonia using fine-wire electromyography. Botulinum toxin treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia: longitudinal functional outcomes. Onabotulinum toxin A dosage trends over time for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a 15-year experience. Botulinum toxin management of adductor spasmodic dysphonia after failed recurrent laryngeal nerve section. Botulinum toxin therapy for recurrent laryngeal nerve section failure for adductor laryngeal dystonia. Isolated and combined dystonia syndromes: an update on new genes and their phenotypes. Focal white matter changes in spasmodic dysphonia: combined diffusion tensor imaging and neuropathological study. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia. Neural correlates of dystonic tremor: a multimodal study of voice tremor in spasmodic dysphonia. Long-term effect of sodium oxybate (Xyrem) in spasmodic dysphonia with vocal tremor. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. Mental (Psychiatric) problems: All Patients · new or worse behavior and thought problems · new or worse bipolar illness · new or worse aggressive behavior or hostility Children and Teenagers · new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing voices, believing things that are not true, are suspicious) or new manic symptoms Tell your doctor about any mental problems you or your child have, or about a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression. During treatment, it is a workbook in which individuals can record their own experience of their disorder, together with the additional advice for their particular case given by their clinician. After treatment has concluded, this manual will serve as a selfhelp resource enabling those who have recovered, but who encounter further stressors or difficulties, to read the appropriate section and, by putting the content into action, stay well. New York: Cambridge University Press (1994) Purchasers of the book may wish to photocopy portions of the text of this manual for use with their patients. This is acceptable to the publisher, who, nevertheless, disclaims any responsibility for the consequences of any such use of this material in clinical practice. It is not necessary to write to Cambridge University Press for permission to make individual photocopies. This permission does not extend to making multiple copies for use by the purchaser, for use by others, or for resale. Individuals or clinics requiring multiple copies may purchase them from Cambridge University Press using the order form at the back of the book. For example, washing in order to avoid contamination follows thoughts about possible contamination. Others still have no compulsive behaviors and suffer from obsessional thoughts alone, while others do not experience obsessions but have compulsive rituals alone. For those suffering both obsessional thoughts and compulsive rituals, it is the anxiety or discomfort associated with the thought that drives the ritual. In other words, the ritual is performed to reduce the anxiety produced by the thought. For those suffering from obsessional thoughts alone, anxiety is often associated with the thought, and mental rituals, distraction, or avoidance may be used to lessen the discomfort. It is much the same for those with compulsive rituals alone in that the behavior is performed in order to lessen the urge to ritualize. They know that their hands are not dirty or contaminated and they know that their house will not burn down if they leave the electric kettle switched on at the wall. Because they are aware of how irrational their behavior is, many sufferers are ashamed of their actions and go to great lengths to hide their symptoms from family, friends, and, unfortunately, even their doctors. It is extremely important that your therapist is aware of all of your symptoms no matter how embarrassing or shameful they may be, as this is the only way that a suitable treatment program can be designed for you. For example, one sufferer may have the thought "My hands are dirty" enter his head. Another sufferer will actually have enter his head the scene of his house burning down. Individuals who suffer obsessions alone may also experience thoughts, images, or scenes. For example, someone who has obsessions about harming his or her children may have the thought of harming them or have a frightening scene of hurting them or an image of the children already hurt. As was pointed out earlier, many obsessions produce anxiety or discomfort that is relieved by performing rituals. The most common rituals are washing and checking, although there are many others such as counting, arranging, or doing things such as dressing in a rigid, orderly fashion. Although rituals are performed to alleviate the anxiety or discomfort that is produced by the obsession, the anxiety relief is usually short-lived. An individual who washes in order to avoid or overcome contamination will often find him- or herself washing repeatedly, because either they were uncertain whether they did a thorough enough job or because the obsessional thought that they are contaminated has recurred. Similarly, someone who checks light switches, stoves, and so forth in order to avoid the house burning down, often has to repeat the behavior over and over, because he may not have done it properly or the thought or image of his house being destroyed has recurred. Even individuals who have obsessional thoughts alone may find that they have to repeat the cognitive rituals such as counting or praying many times over as they may not have done them perfectly in the first place. An important point to keep in mind is that many sufferers have more than one type of symptom so that individuals may engage in more than one type of ritual or have more than one type of obsessional thought. Another point to note is that symptoms change over time and someone who is predominately a washer may, over time, develop checking rituals that eventually supersede the original complaint. In addition to changes in symptoms, the course of the disorder may also fluctuate over time, with periods of worsening and periods of improvement. Other sufferers may find that their symptoms remain static, while yet others may find a gradual worsening of symptoms since the onset of the disorder. Apart from disrupting their own lives, it also frequently interferes with the lives of family members as the typical sufferer often asks the other members to do things a certain way or not to engage in certain behaviors, as this may prompt the sufferer to engage in rituals. Thus, the symptoms are not only controlling, frustrating, and irritating to the patients, but also to their family, friends, and workmates.

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